Research Seminars

Research seminars

CLiC: studying literature in the digital age’

michaela Mahlberg (University of Birmingham)

14th march 2018

The CLiC Dickens project demonstrates through corpus stylistics how computer-assisted methods can be used to study literary texts and lead to new insights into how readers perceive fictional characters. The project was funded by the AHRC and resulted in the development of the web app CLiC (Corpus Linguistics in Context), designed specifically for the analysis of literary texts. This talk will demonstrate how CLiC can be used to support stylistic analysis.

Hazel Price
A processing and language-based typology of poetic difficulty

Davide Castiglione (Vilnius University)

7th march 2018

This talks presents some recent conceptual refinements of my difficulty model. In particular, it posits the need for three cognitive-behavioural dimensions (accessibility, readability and interpretability) mediating between poetic difficulty as a response phenomenon and the linguistic strategies prompting it at the textual level. An important consequence of this refinement is a much firmer theoretical distinction between difficulty and obscurity, as well as the development of four aesthetic typologies solidly grounded in the textuality of poems: 1) processing baseline (high on accessibility, readability and interpretability); 2) transient difficulty (low on accessibility and readability, high on interpretability); 3) permanent difficulty (low on accessibility, readability and interpretability), of which I identify two subtypes: the chaotic poem (impeded interpretability) and the nonsensical one (unacceptable interpretability). Each type will be exemplified in stylistic terms and compared to previous typological attempts, notably Steiner (1978).

Hazel Price
Semantic change in science fiction: a cognitive, corpus stylistic approach

louise nuttall (university of huddersfield)

14th february 2018

Corpus linguistic research has examined how new or existing words acquire meaning over time by examining the contexts in which they occur. Central to such analysis is the idea that collocational patterns can imbue words with connotational meaning, often termed semantic prosody or semantic preference (Louw 1993; Hunston 2007). In this paper, I adopt a corpus-assisted approach (O’Halloran 2007) to investigate the way in which readers come to understand unfamiliar or ambiguous language in a science fiction context.

Kazuo Ishiguro’s Never Let Me Go (2005) describes what seems to be an idyllic boarding school childhood for its narrator, Kathy. Readers are invited to comprehend the sinister reality which underlies Kathy’s childhood gradually, through the opaque references she provides throughout her narrative. Familiar words such as ‘carer’, ‘donor’ and ‘guardian’ progressively gain an alternative, darker meaning in the course of the text. By the end of the novel, we understand that in this alternative reality these words mean almost their opposite.

Uses of these words across the novel are examined through concordancing and comparison with collocations in the British National Corpus. Drawing on concepts from cognitive stylistics, I describe readers’ processing of these cohesive references across the text in terms of reference point chains (Langacker 2008) and burying (Sanford and Emmott 2012). I argue that, through a cumulative manipulation of these words and their meanings in a science fiction context, this text reveals processes by which language can disguise truths and normalise atrocities in the real-world.



Hunston, S. (2007) ‘Semantic prosody revisited’, International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 12(2): 249-68.

Ishiguro, K. (2005) Never Let Me Go. London: Faber and Faber.

Langacker, R. W. (2008) Cognitive Grammar: A Basic Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.

Louw, B. (1993) ‘Irony in the text or insincerity in the writer?’ In Text and Technology: in honour of John Sinclair (pp. 169–189). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

O’Halloran, K. (2007) ‘The subconscious in James Joyce’s `Eveline’: a corpus stylistic analysis that chews on the `Fish hook’’. Language and Literature, 16(3), 227–244.

Sanford, A., & Emmott, C. (2012) Mind, Brain and Narrative. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hazel Price
What the /fᴧk/? An acoustic-pragmatic analysis of implicated meaning in a scene from The Wire

Erica Gold and Dan McIntyre (university of huddersfield)

7th February 2018

In the critically-acclaimed HBO series, The Wire, Detectives Jimmy McNulty and William ‘Bunk’ Moreland are investigating old homicide cases. They are revisiting the case of a young woman shot dead in her apartment, and visit the scene of the crime to try and figure out how the woman was killed. The two detectives communicate with each other using only the word fuck and its variants (e.g. motherfucker, fuckity fuck, etc.). However, the viewer is able to understand what McNulty and Bunk mean when they communicate despite using such a restricted set of words.

This paper examines the acoustic properties in the vowel realizations of fuck in combination with pragmatic classifications of the utterances to determine whether the production styles play a role in expressing meaning. All tokens of fuck were categorized using modified pre-existing classifications McEnery & Xiao (2004) and Murphy (2009). Formants and duration were measured for all vowels, and multinomial regression and box plots were used to examine the relationships between meaning and productions.

The results show that the duration of the vowels produced had a strong relationship with the meaning being conveyed – a long duration was associated with disbelief/realization, and shorter durations were more associated with insults/functional uses. Furthermore, our results shed new light on what for linguists is an old problem: how do we make sense of what people say when speakers so very rarely say exactly what they mean? Research in pragmatics suggests that we infer meaning when people break conversational norms (e.g. Grice 1989; Levinson 2000). In the scene from The Wire, while it is clear that the characters are breaking normal conventions, pragmatic accounts of implicature cannot explain how we infer such a range of meaning from such limited vocabulary. Our results suggest that this is because meaning is coming not via conversational implicature but is being conveyed at the phonetic level.


Grice, H. Paul (1975) Logic and conversation. In Cole, Peter and Morgan, Jerry (eds) Syntax and Semantics. Vol. III: Speech Acts, pp. 41-58. New York: Academic Press.

Levinson, Stephen (2000) Presumptive Meanings: The Theory of Generalized Conversational Implicature. Cambridge: MIT Press.

McEnery, Anthony & Xiao, Richard. (2004) Swearing in modern British English: the case of “fuck” in the BNC. Language and Literature 13(3): 235-68.

Murphy, Brona (2009) “She's a fucking ticket”: the pragmatics of fuck in Irish English – an age and gender perspective. Corpora 4(1): 85-106.

Hazel Price
From cool to bad and back again: Multicultural London English and the media 2005–2018

Paul Kerswill (University of York)

31st January 2018

My talk deals with the way 'Multicultural London English' has been talked about in the British print and online media, from its origins as 'Jafaican' (a media invention) through to a variety of English that is now common currency in the media. I will discuss the different discourses associated with MLE, from an interesting, cool new variety, through a variety that was vilified by politicians and journalists as 'pushing out' the authentic dialect of Cockney, while at the same time leading to educational disadvantage. MLE was seen as the language of the 2011 London riots, three years  later also being equated with the speech of the violent jihadist Mohammed Emwazi (aka Jihadi John). Concurrently, it has emerged as the language of London-based grime, and has spread from there to be the language of choice for grime across the country. 

Hazel Price
Non-canonical questions and “negation” in Glasgow Scots

E Jamieson (University of Edinburgh)

24th January 2018

‘Non-canonical questions’ define a broad set of interrogative constructions in which the speaker already has a belief about what the answer to the question should be. These include biased questions (1), tag questions (2), rhetorical questions (3) and interrogative exclamatives (4), all of which are produced in standard English with the negation marker –n’t (Domaneschi et al. 2017, Ladd 1981, Zanuttini & Portner 2003)

1.     Can’t he come too?

2.     He can come, can’t he?

3.     Didn’t I tell you it would be easy?

4.     Isn’t she brilliant!

In Scots varieties, -n’t is not used; instead these questions generally have low negation, no (equivalent to standard English not).

5.     Can he no come too? / He can come, can he no?

However, some Scots varieties have “negation” markers that can only be used in these non-canonical questions. In this talk I will present results of acceptability judgment tasks showing the distribution of Glasgow Scots –int.

6.     *He kint come.

7.     *Kint he come too?

8.     He can come, kint he?

9.     He cannae come, kint he no?

10.  Dint I tell you it would be easy?

11.  Wint she brilliant!

I will show that there are specific pragmatic contexts that license the use of this particle, and argue that despite looking on the surface like negation and appearing in the same contexts as negation does in standard English, –int is in fact not negation. Rather, it is a check marker that checks that the addressee also believes the proposition p that the speaker believes. Rather than being syntactically in NegP, I argue that it is situated in ResponseP, in the conversation domain of the left periphery (Wiltschko & Heim 2016). This analysis accounts for its limited distribution, lack of negation-like behaviour (such as not anti-licensing positive polarity items like too) and crucially, its ability to appear with lower negation marker no in contexts like (9).

I will round off with a brief discussion of other varieties of English which appear to have similar particles – other Scots varieties, Newcastle English and Tyrone English


Domaneschi, F., Romero, M. & Braun, B. (2017) ‘Bias in polar questions: Evidence from English and German production experiments’ Glossa 

Ladd, R. (1981) ‘A first look at the semantics and pragmatics of negative questions and tag questions’ CLS 18

Wiltschko, M. & Heim, J. (2016) ‘The syntax of confirmationals: A neo-performative analysis’ in Outside the Clause: Form and function of extra-clausal constituents

Zanuttini, R. & Portner, P. (2003) ‘Exclamative clauses: At the syntax-semantics interface’ Language 79(1)


Hazel Price
'Colloquialization' in fiction: a corpus-driven analysis of present-tense fiction 

Reiko Ikeo (Lancaster University)

Over the past decade, more and more writers have used the present tense as the primary tense for their fictional narratives instead of the past tense. This paper shows that contemporary present-tense fiction has more characteristics which are similar to spoken discourse than past-tense fiction by comparing lexis and structures in two corpora: a corpus consisting of present-tense narratives and a corpus of past-tense narratives. It also discusses how the use of the present tense affects the management of viewpoint in narrative by relating its lexical, structural characteristics to the presentation of characters’ speech and thoughts. 

Hazel Price
Middle Class Acquisition

Robyn Orfitelli (University of Sheffield)

One of the most discussed puzzles in language acquisition is that children learning English (and a typologically diverse array of other languages) are delayed in acquiring adult comprehension of A(rgument)-movement structures like (1)-(2) until as late as 6 years old, but acquire others (3) early (cf. Orfitelli 2012 and references within). This discrepancy has inspired numerous explanations, including appeals to structural frequency (Demuth 1989), the non-canonical thematic alignment of passives (e.g. Fox and Grodzinsky 1998, Kirby 2009), and recently, intervention effects (Orfitelli 2012, Snyder and Hyams 2015), which suggest that structures like (1) violate locality restrictions on movement, making them impossible for young children to derive, while the sentences in (2) do not violate these restrictions.

(1) Amber was seen Amber by Graham. verbal passive

(2) Amber seems to Graham [to be Amber sleeping]. subject-to-subject raising

(3) Amber believes Graham [to be Graham lying]. subject-to-object raising

This paper presents data from three experimental studies on the acquisition of the Amovement involved in the middle voice (4), and a related structure with similar properties (5, cf Ahn and Sailor 2014). Both (4) and (5) are structurally ambiguous: the nominative subject may be interpreted as either the external argument (reading i) or internal argument (reading ii) of the predicate. The internal argument reading is of particular interest to an understanding of A-movement acquisition, as it presents a non-canonical thematic alignment, but does not violate locality restrictions on movement (Ackema and Schoorlemmer 2007, Ahn and Sailor 2014). Furthermore, the results of experiment 1, a CHILDES search of sentences like (4) and (5) in four British English corpora, reveals that the internal argument usage is even rarer in the input to children than verbal passives are.

(4) Kittens sell easily. middle

i. Kittens are excellent sales-cats

ii. Kittens are easy to sell.

(5) Mad scientists make great monsters. “make-middle”

i. Mad scientists create great monsters (a la Dr. Frankenstein).

ii. Mad scientists become great monsters (a la Dr. Jekyll).

10 linguistically naïve adults and 60 English-acquiring children (mean age 5.4 years) participated in two truth-value judgement tasks (Crain and McKee 1985) investigating comprehension of sentences similar to (4) and (5). In one scenario testing sentences like (5), a handsome prince enjoys sculpting, but has no talent (Picture 1). One day, he sculpted a horribly ugly frog (Picture 2). The wicked witch saw this, and turned him into a frog too, but the prince was so handsome he became a very handsome frog. Following the story, the TVJT puppet shows the child either Picture 2 or 3, and utters a test item. The condition of interest is “In this part of the story…the prince makes a handsome/ugly frog” which can be applied to either Picture 2 or 3 with different interpretations. The adjective ugly would be the adult-like adjective for Picture 2, in which the prince is the external argument of make, while handsome is the adult-like adjective for Picture 3, in which it is the internal argument.







Based on logistic regressions with accuracy as the dependent variable and age and condition as fixed effects, neither age nor condition was found to be a significant predictor for either study. These results indicate that both adults and children readily permit both interpretations of the sentence. Thus, children allow the nominative DP to begin as an internal argument, despite the non-canonical alignment of this interpretation, and its extreme rarity in child directed speech. Of the accounts considered here, only intervention – or the lack thereof – is consistent with the early comprehension of these structures, as compared to the late acquisition of verbal passives and subject-to-subject raising.


Ackema, P. & M. Schoorlemmer. 2007. 'Middles' In M. Everaert & H. van Riemsdijk (eds.) The Blackwell Companion to Syntax.. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 131-203.

Ahn, B. & C. Sailor. 2014. The emerging middle class. In Proceedings from the 46th Annual Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society.

Crain, S., & McKee, C. (1985, October). The acquisition of structural restrictions on anaphora. In Proceedings of NELS (Vol. 15, pp. 94-110).

Demuth, K. (1989). Maturation and the acquisition of the Sesotho passive. Language, 56-80.

Fox, D. & Y. Grodzinsky. 1998. Children's passive: A view from the `by'-phrase. Linguistic Inquiry 29:311-332.

Kirby, S. (2010). Passives in first language acquisition: What causes the delay?. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics, 16(1), 13.

Orfitelli, R. M. (2012). Argument intervention in the acquisition of A-movement. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Los Angeles.

Snyder, W. & N. Hyams. 2015. Minimality Effects in Children's Passives In Elisa Di Domenico, Cornelia Hamann, and Simona Matteini (eds.) Structures, Strategies and Beyond. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Hazel Price
Language and ‘the local’: How language indexes identity in an insular community

Emma Moore (University of Sheffield)

Discussions of language and place sometimes give the impression that the ‘local’ is a clearly defined and recognisable entity. However, as Eckert (2004:109) has noted, “the community is a contested entity that is differentially constructed in the practices and in the speech of different factions”. That is to say, different people experience ‘the local’ differently. This paper will explore precisely how life trajectory and gender interact to affect how individuals from the same small island community use language to index ‘local’.

My data comes from the Isles of Scilly, a group of islands off the south-west coast of England. I focus on the vowels in two pairs of lexical sets, one with quite clear ideological associations in English English (TRAP and BATH), and another which is regionally distinct, but less socially marked (MOUTH and PRICE). My data suggests that men define the envelope of variation for these vowels, and that this can be explained as a consequence of different educational experiences, which result in the construction of two oppositional Scillonian identity types. The women in the community show a smaller degree of variation and this can be explained as a consequence of reduced access to the range of linguistic markets available to men.

In the course of the analysis, I will question the assumption implicit in much sociolinguistic work that use of standard forms straightforwardly reflects orientation to norms external to the local community being studied (see, e.g. Labov 1963; Gal 1978; Holmquist 1985; Schilling-Estes 1998)). Furthermore, by focusing on a small, rural, island community, I’ll also demonstrate that the local is not even easily defined in communities which are often portrayed as linguistically conservative and homogeneous. Building on existing research from Schilling-Estes (2002), Smith and Durham (2011) and Burland (2017), I’ll show that what matters is not the size or type of communities we study, but the necessity for individuals to index distinct styles and identities within a particular social space.



Burland, Kate. 2017. Where Black Country meets “Black Barnsley”: Dialect variation and identity in an ex-mining community of Barnsley. In Chris Montgomery & Emma Moore (eds.), Language and a Sense of Place. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Eckert, Penelope. 2004. Variation and a sense of place. In Carmen Fought (ed.), Sociolinguistic Variation: Critical Reflections, 107–120. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gal, Susan. 1978. Peasant men can’t get wives: Language change and sex roles in a bilingual community. Language in Society 7. 1–16.

Holmquist, Jonathan C. 1985. Social correlates of a linguistic variable: A study in a Spanish village. Language in Society 14. 191–203.

Labov, William. 1963. The social motivation of a sound change. Word 19. 273–309.

Schilling-Estes, Natalie. 1998. Investigating “self-conscious” speech: The performance register in Ocracoke English. Language in Society 27. 53–83.

Schilling-Estes, Natalie. 2002. On the nature of isolated and post-isolated dialects: Innovation, variation and differentiation. Journal of Sociolinguistics 6(1). 64–85.

Smith, Jennifer & Mercedes Durham. 2011. A tipping point in dialect obsolescence? Change across the generations in Lerwick, Shetland. Journal of Sociolinguistics 15(2). 197–225.

Hazel Price
Hansard: A Multimedia Introduction to Parliamentary Reporting

John Vice (Editor of Debates, Lords Hansard)

The talk will assume interest in but not much knowledge about Hansard and will focus on the challenges of transforming spoken to written English, by looking at three problem areas: Members who use props in their speeches, Members who swear and other kinds of interruptions. John will be open to questions related to his work in recording the proceedings of the House of Lords, from any perspective (i.e. not just linguistic).

Hazel Price
Attributing Short Texts

Jack Grieve (University of Birmingham)

Short texts are a common problem in authorship analysis, in forensic, historical, and literary contexts. The basic issue for stylometric methods in particular, where texts are attributed based on a quantitative analysis, is that short texts do not provide a large enough sample to allow for reliable estimates of the relative frequencies of most linguistic features to be made. For example, a text containing 100 words will generally lack many common function words, but we certainly cannot assume that this is true of the author’s writings more generally. Consequently, stylometric methods are usually intended to be used on relatively long texts of at least 500 or 1,000 words. Many anonymous texts, however, are far shorter. To address this issue, we have developed a new quantitative approach for attributing short texts known as n-gram tracing. In this presentation, I will introduce the method, evaluate its general applicability, and apply it to a famous historical case of disputed authorship -- the Bixby Letter, a 139-word letter thought to have been written by either Abraham Lincoln, to whom it is usually attributed, or his personal secretary John Hay.

Hazel Price
Language in first-person accounts of schizophrenia: From mind style to clinical relevance

Elena Semino (Lancaster University)

In this talk I apply the analytical approach associated, in Stylistics, with the notion of ‘mind style’ to an autobiographical narrative and a series of interviews involving people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. I suggest that the systematic analysis of distinctive patterns in the use of pronouns, speech presentation, narrative structure and metaphor can reveal aspects of the mental functioning and lived experience of people with schizophrenia which have potential implications for diagnosis and treatment.

The research presented in this talk has been carried out in collaboration with Zsófia Demjén and Agnes Marszalek (University College London), and Filippo Varese (University of Manchester).


Hazel Price
Processing human gender and grammatical gender in coreference

Lauren Ackerman (Newcastle University)

What knowledge is accessed and checked during gendered coreference dependency formation? English encodes some kind of information about gender in pronouns and names, and coreference dependency formation relies on antecedent gender of “matching" that of the anaphor. However, human gender is not binary, and nonconforming genders are increasing in visibility. I investigate whether nonstandard coreference dependencies are processed differentially across the population. I find higher acceptability of these dependencies among people with regular contact with transgender/nonbinary communities, particularly younger speakers. This suggests experience with gender variation influences speakers’ mental representations of gender and these nuanced representations are what is accessed during gendered coreference dependency formation. Based on this, I speculate how gender might be encoded in a way that unites general cognitive processing of human gender with formal syntactic theories.

Hazel Price
Discovery procedures for sound structure

Aleksei Nazarov (University of Huddersfield)

Some aspects of phonological encoding (like phonological features, rule ordering, stress, and exceptionality) cannot be established from phonetics alone and must instead be inferred by the learner. This talk will illustrate the use of computers to simulate the acquisition of these aspects through discovery procedures (Harris 1946). I will particularly focus on the problem of finding words that are exceptions to a sound rule when the sound rule itself produces variation. The existing Optimality Theory literature can find exceptions (Pater 2010, Becker 2009, Coetzee 2009) or deal with variation (Boersma 1998, Goldwater & Johnson 2003, Coetzee & Pater 2011, Jarosz 2006, 2015) but not both. I propose to make the discovery procedure from Pater (2010) compatible with models that can handle variation. Essentially, I hypothesize that a word is marked as an exception when two different phonological constraints (for instance *[Vowel-Stop] and Faithful) have a ranking tendency for that word (e.g., tendency towards *[Vowel-Stop] >> Faithful) that is opposite to the ranking tendency for the entire lexicon (e.g., tendency towards Faithful >> *[Vowel-Stop]). I will show on the basis of simulations with data from Modern Hebrew that this proposal can indeed learn exceptionality in the face of variability.

Hazel Price
Syllables, segments and speech tempo perception

Leendert Plug (University of Leeds)

Speech tempo is a fundamental parameter in speech analysis. Tempo fluctuations are of interest to researchers studying speech production, speech perception and verbal interaction. Inter-speaker variation in habitual tempo is relevant for forensic speaker profiling, and speech recognition and synthesis systems require tempo models to process input variation and produce natural-sounding output. Speech tempo also informs fluency measures and language learner assessments, and various speech, language and other disorders are associated with atypical tempo patterns. The research I will report on in this talk is motivated by our limited grasp on this fundamental parameter -- in particular, our limited understanding of how speech tempo is perceived by ordinary listeners, and how commonly used methods of measuring tempo reflect this perception. I will present results of initial experiments probing the impact of phonological complexity on speech tempo perception -- complexity which results in tempo measurements in syllables per second diverging from measurements in segments per second. I will describe ongoing experiments into the relationship between rhythm and tempo perception, and outline plans for investigation the extent to which segment deletions are taken into account in tempo estimation: in essence, when listeners hear [sport] meaning 'support', do they estimate its tempo on the observation that the speaker is articulating a one-syllable form, or on the understanding that the speaker is communicating a two-syllable one?


Hazel Price
“It’s definitely not Urdu”: why we need a (phonological) description of the Mirpur Pahari language

Sam Hellmuth (University of York)

Mirpur Pahari (or ‘Mirpuri’) is a dialect of the Pahari/Pothwari language, spoken in north-west Pakistan and in the UK. It is an Indo-Aryan language in the Western Punjabi branch and has no written form (Stow, Pert, & Khattab, 2012).

There are an estimated half a million Mirpuri speakers living in the UK, who have migrated from the Mirpur district of Azad Kashmir, starting in the 1960s but continuing to the present day. By some estimates, up to half of the total population of Mirpuri speakers live in the UK (Lothers & Lothers, 2012). There are a number of related Pahari dialects, but limited research on the phonology of any of them, and Pahari is under-represented in research on UK minority languages (Hussain, 2015).

This talk presents preliminary results from two studies carried out with English-Mirpuri bilinguals in the UK. First, we show how a study of the pronunciation of English words borrowed into Mirpuri can be used to confirm details of our working description of the phonology of Mirpuri, including its phoneme inventory, syllable structure and stress patterns (Shafi & Hellmuth, 2017). Secondly, we highlight the need for re-calibration of standardised English tests for use with bilingual speakers, in a pilot study exploring language transfer effects on scores obtained by English-Mirpuri bilinguals in a clinical test of expressive prosody (Fawcett & Hellmuth, 2017). Overall, the aim is to demonstrate the potential benefits to be gained from further study of the multilingual competencies of Mirpuri speakers in the UK, and the need for description and documentation of the Mirpuri language itself. 


Fawcett, S. & Hellmuth, S. (2017). Distinguishing diversity from disorder in English-Mirpuri bilinguals' PEPS-C scores. Ms., University of York.

Hussain, S. (2015). Missing from the 'minority mainstream': Pahari-speaking diaspora in Britain. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 36, 483-497.

Lothers, M. & Lothers, L. (2012). Mirpuri immigrants in England: A sociolinguistic survey. SIL Electronic Survey Report, 12.

Shafi, S. & Hellmuth, S. (2017). Variable adaptation of stress placement in English loanwords in Mirpur Pahari. Ms., University of York.

Stow, C., Pert, S., & Khattab, G. (2012). Translation to practice: Sociolinguistic and cultural considerations when working with the Pakistani heritage community in England, UK. Multilingual Aspects of Speech Sound Disorders in Children, 6, 24.

Hazel Price
Language revitalisation: Linguistic creativity and innovation in Scottish Gaelic

Claire Nance (Lancaster University)

This paper will examine the social and linguistic outcome of the programme to revitalise Gaelic in Scotland. Several decades of concerted effort have led to a context where Gaelic is recognised as equal to English in Scottish legislation, but the language is still subject to intense negative feeling by a vocal minority of the population and suffers declining speaker numbers. Young people in Scotland can now complete their entire education from pre-school to degree level through the medium of Gaelic, yet Gaelic is now rarely used as a social language among younger generations.

I will discuss the impact of these social developments on Gaelic, concentrating on new communities of speakers in Glasgow and Edinburgh. Traditionally, Gaelic has only been spoken in urban central Scotland by migrants from the Highlands and Islands, but recent initiatives associated with revitalisation have created significant numbers of both adult second language speakers and young people acquiring Gaelic in immersion education. I will examine the linguistic behaviour of such individuals focussing on phonetics and phonology. Specifically, I demonstrate that distinct, lowland varieties of Gaelic are emerging through analysis of laterals, intonation, vowels and rhotic consonants.

In the discussion, I examine whether we can consider these developments for Gaelic as ‘new dialects’ of a minority revitalised language. I also offer some implications of the research for future policy and language planning.

Hazel Price
Research Seminars 2017-2018 - Term 1 Schedule

The Linguistics Research Seminar Series offers you the chance to hear about the latest research developments in Linguistics and Modern Languages. Seminars last around an hour and are open to anyone interested.

For more information about the seminars, please contact Hazel Price



Dr Claire Nance (Lancaster University)

Dr Sam Hellmuth (University of York)


Dr Leendert Plug (University of Leeds)


Dr Aleksei Nazarov (University of Huddersfield)


Dr Lauren Ackerman (Newcastle University)


Prof. Elena Semino (Lancaster University)


Prof. Jack Grieve (University of Birmingham)




John Vice (Editor of Debates of House of Lords)


Dr Emma Moore (University of Sheffield)



Dr Robyn Orfitelli University of Sheffield)

Hazel Price
The beginning of ‘the Age of Austerity’: A critical stylistics analysis of Cameron’s 2009 spring conference speech.


Austerity has strong connections with 1940s and 1950s Britain, when the consumption of food and clothing and other goods was regulated and reduced via rationing and controls on pricing. Seventy years on from the end of war, the sense that everyone was suffering together and that it was for a ‘greater good’ (i.e. winning the war against Hitler, and then rebuilding Britain) remains strong in the cultural memory of UK citizens over 50. Cameron attempted to evoke those days of national unity by using, and reusing, the word austerity during the build-up to the 2009 general election.

Significant power can be wielded in political discourse by word-forms, which may connote a whole complex of meaning subtly different from the everyday usage of the same word and work as a kind of shorthand for a whole ideological stance. Cameron’s use of austerity as a vague evocation of 1940s/50s Britain with everyone pulling together meant that those trying to discredit public spending cuts as a solution to the financial crisis found they had to argue against an essentially unclear idea of what it is that is being discredited (i.e. austerity).

This paper presents a critical stylistic analysis the first of Cameron’s speeches to mention austerity, given April 26, 2009 at the Conservative Party spring conference, and discusses Cameron’s presentation of the UK economic landscape and his proposal for ‘balancing the books’, which in fact meant the permanent shrinking of public services. The paper will outline the methodology for the systematic analysis of this fairly large text, report on linguistic patterns in the data, and finish by drawing conclusions about the status of austerity as a socio-political keyword.

Hazel Price
Problems and Solutions: the inadequate female body in cosmetics advertising

Helen Ringrow (University of Portsmouth)

Many contemporary (cosmetics) advertisements display a discursive structure commonly known as the Problem-Solution pattern (Hoey 1983; 2001). In female-targeted media discourse, this pattern takes as its basic ideological starting point that the female body is inadequate and products can provide solutions to these shortcomings. This ‘self-improvement’ often involves an attempt to disguise or delay the visual signifiers of ageing, which are conceptualised as fundamentally negative. This paper will consider how language is used to create this idea of ‘self-improvement’ through analysis of a corpus of recent English and French beauty advertisements. The paper offers an adaptation of Hoey’s (1983; 2001) Problem-Solution model for specific application to cosmetics advertising discourse (from Ringrow 2016). The Problem-Solution pattern is used in beauty advertising to equate femininity with the continual pursuit of the young, ideal body.



Hoey, M. (1983) On the Surface of Discourse. London: Allen and Unwin.

Hoey, M. (2001) Textual Interaction: an introduction to written discourse analysis.

London: Routledge.

Ringrow, H. (2016) The Language of Cosmetics Advertising. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Hazel Price